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Các xét nghiệm về HIV  

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12:06 20/06/2017

Sau khi có nguy cơ về HIV như: quan hệ tình dục không an toàn; tiếp xúc với máu, dịch tiết của người khác, dẵm phải bơm kim tiêm…thì người có nguy cơ rất lo lắng sợ bị nh.. [..]

Sau khi có nguy cơ về HIV như: quan hệ tình dục không an toàn; tiếp xúc với máu, dịch tiết của người khác, dẵm phải bơm kim tiêm…thì người có nguy cơ rất lo lắng sợ bị nhiễm HIV. Nếu nguy cơ chưa quá 72 giờ thì có thể dùng được thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV thì sẽ yên tâm hơn rất nhiều về HIV. Để khẳng định có bị nhiễm HIV hay không thì cần phải dựa vào kết quả xét nghiệm. Có những xét nghiệm về HIV như sau:

1.Xét nghiệm trực tiếp

- Là xét nghiệm phát hiện chính virus HIV, bao gồm các xét nghiệm tìm ra kháng nguyên( kháng nguyên p24), nuôi cấy HIV, xét nghiệm acid nucleic của tế bào lympho máu ngoại vi và chuỗi phản ứng polymerase.

- Các xét nghiệm trực tiếp tìm virus HIV như là combo, combi pt. Đây là 2 xét nghiệm hay được làm để tìm ra kháng nguyên, và được làm sớm nhất 3 tuần sau nguy cơ.

2. Xét nghiệm tìm kháng thể

Là xét nghiệm phổ biến, xác định người có nguy cơ bị nhiễm HIV hay không dựa vào việc tìm ra kháng thể do virus HIV sinh ra nên thường được làm sau nguy cơ 3 tháng thì mới có độ tin cậy cao, được làm sớm nhất sau nguy cơ 6 tuần nhưng vẫn phải chốt lại sau nguy cơ 3 tháng, gồm các xét nghiệm sau:

-Xét nghiệm Elisa: là xét nghiệm tìm ra kháng thể của virus HIV trong máu của người bệnh. Cơ chế của xét nghiệm Elisa như sau:

Kháng nguyên HIV được phủ lên trên những hạt nhựa gắn Elisa. Huyết thanh của người có nguy cơ có chứa kháng thể( kháng thể thứu nhất). Nếu bị HIV thì huyết thanh sẽ có kháng thể kháng HIV và kháng thể này sẽ gắn với kháng nguyên HIV được phủ lên trên những hạt nhựa.

Kháng immunoglobulin( kháng thể thứ hai) có chứa enzym và nó sẽ gắn với kháng thể kháng HIV nếu kháng thể này có trong cơ thể người sẽ làm chuyển màu chỉ thị màu.

-Xét nghiệm test nhanh hiv: tùy từng cơ sở y tế sẽ có loại test nhanh khác nhau, xét nghiệm này cũng tìm ra kháng thể HIV. Độ hiệu quả rất cao gần như 99%.

Nếu như kết quả là chưa xác định thì cần phải làm XN 3 phương pháp để khẳng định lại chắc chắn có bị nhiễm HIV hay không.


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