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Để không lây nhiễm viêm gan B cho con?  

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09:09 25/09/2014

Tỷ lệ lưu hành HBsAg của Việt Nam là 10 - 20%. Một số nghiên cứu cho thấy, tỷ lệ HBsAg ở phụ nữ có thai >10%. Trẻ sơ sinh có nguy cơ lây nhiễm khi sinh từ 10% - 90% nế.. [..]

Tỷ lệ lưu hành HBsAg của Việt Nam là 10 - 20%. Một số nghiên cứu cho thấy, tỷ lệ HBsAg ở phụ nữ có thai >10%. Trẻ sơ sinh có nguy cơ lây nhiễm khi sinh từ 10% - 90% nếu mẹ bị nhiễm viêm gan B. Đây là đường lây nhiễm nguy hiểm nhất. Nếu trẻ sơ sinh bị lây nhiễm virut viêm gan B từ mẹ sẽ có nguy cơ trở thành bệnh mạn tính là 90% và khoảng 25% trong số đó sẽ có nguy cơ bị ung thư gan và xơ gan.


Cho đến nay, chưa có thuốc đặc hiệu điều trị viêm gan B. Do đó, tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B trong vòng 24 giờ đầu sau khi sinh là cách tốt nhất để phòng lây truyền viêm gan B từ mẹ sang con. Tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B trong 24 giờ đầu sau sinh sẽ phòng lây truyền từ mẹ sang con từ 80 - 95%. Nếu tiêm muộn, việc phòng lây truyền viêm gan B từ mẹ sang con sẽ ít hiệu quả. Do đó, sau khi sinh trẻ cần được tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B trong 24 giờ đầu sau sinh.

Vắcxin viêm gan B rất an toàn, đã được sử dụng ở nhiều nước trên thế giới. Tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B cho trẻ sơ sinh trong vòng 24 giờ đầu sau sinh là chiến lược của Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới trong phòng chống bệnh viêm gan B. Ở nước ta, vắc-xin viêm gan B được triển khai tiêm cho trẻ em trong Chương trình Tiêm chủng mở rộng từ năm 1997.

Sau khi tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B có thể gặp các phản ứng thông thường như: đau tại chỗ tiêm, sốt. Những phản ứng nặng sau tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B thường hiếm gặp và sẽ qua khỏi nếu được phát hiện và xử trí kịp thời. Để đảm bảo an toàn tiêm chủng, các bà mẹ nên tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B khi trẻ đã bú tốt và đề nghị để con mình được cán bộ y tế thăm khám trước khi tiêm.

Tiêm vắc-xin viêm gan B trong 24 giờ đầu sau sinh và tiêm đủ mũi vắc-xin viêm gan B là cách phòng bệnh tốt nhất.

(Theo sức khỏe đời sống)

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin tham khảo về sức khỏe trẻ em, nếu có những thắc mắc thêm về sức khỏe các bạn hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài 19008908 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp từ các chuyên gia.



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