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Giang mai : Biểu hiện và điều trị  

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07:04 07/04/2017

Giang mai thường lây truyền qua việc tiếp xúc tình dục ở vùng sinh dục, tiếp xúc cơ thể ở các dạng khác nhau cũng có thể gây bệnh, chẳng hạn như chạm vào một vết thương m.. [..]

Giang mai thường lây truyền qua việc tiếp xúc tình dục ở vùng sinh dục, tiếp xúc cơ thể ở các dạng khác nhau cũng có thể gây bệnh, chẳng hạn như chạm vào một vết thương mở. Đặc biệt, vi khuẩn spirochetes truyền từ vết thương mở của người nhiễm bệnh sang màng nhầy hay vết trầy xước trên da của người khác.

Sau tháng thứ 4 của thai kỳ, giang mai có thể vượt qua nhau thai để gây bệnh cho thai nhi. Do đó, phụ nữ mang bầu được điều trị trước tháng thứ 4 của thai kỳ có thể bảo vệ con của mình khỏi căn bệnh này.


Có bốn giai đoạn khác nhau của bệnh giang mai:

Giai đoạn đầu

Điển hình bởi săng giang mai

Vết thương giống cái nhọt, tròn, không gây đau, có bờ cứng, nhô cao, Đối với nam giới, săng xuất hiện ở dương vật, còn đối với phụ nữ thì săng xuất hiện ở cổ tử cung, môi âm đạo, hay thành âm đạo

Giai đoạn thứ hai :

Sự biến mất của săng báo hiệu giai đoạn đầu đã kết thúc. GĐ này đặc trưng bởi việc phát ban ở cơ thể, sự phát ban này có thể kéo dài vài tháng, tiếp theo sau sự liền lại của săng. Sự phát ban này không gây ngứa, và cũng giống như săng, nó tự biến mất mà không cần phải chữa trị gì. Có thể kèm theo sốt, đau họng , miệng, ăn mất ngon.  Giai đoạn này có thể phát hiện được bằng xét nghiệm máu. Nếu phát hiện được trong giai đoạn này có thể điều trị khỏi vĩnh viễn không để lại những tổn thương vĩnh viễn.

Giai đoạn ủ bệnh:

Giai đoạn này có thể kéo dài nhiều năm. Lúc này bệnh không thể hiện các triệu chứng bên ngoài mà chỉ thử máu ta mới biết được là đã bị nhiễm bệnh.( Trừ TH mang thai có thể lây cho con,còn bệnh thường không lây trong vài năm ủ bệnh.)

Giai đoạn nặng: 50% chuyển từ gđ ủ bệnh sang gđ nặng và có nhiều tổn thương thực thể trên não bộ, tủy sống,mắt phổi tim,…

Điều trị:

Điều trị bằng Penicilline (Benzathine penicilline,PAM,benzyl penicilline tinh thể hòa tan….) nồng độ có tác dụng là 0,07-0,2 UI trong 1 ml huyết thanh ,giữ đều đặn 15-30 ngày.

Lưu ý: Khi có bất kì biểu hiện nghi ngờ hãy đến các cơ sở y tế thăm khám hoặc tham khảo ý kiến các bác sĩ.

Chúc bạn sức khỏe!


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