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Giang mai | Triệu chứng và cách điều trị giang mai  

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08:07 31/07/2017

Giang mai là một bệnh xã hội nguy hiểm,gây ảnh hưởng nghiêm trọng đến sức khỏe cũng như đời sống sinh hoạt tình dục.Nếu không được phát hiện sớm và điều trị kịp thời nó c.. [..]

Giang mai là một bệnh xã hội nguy hiểm,gây ảnh hưởng nghiêm trọng đến sức khỏe cũng như đời sống sinh hoạt tình dục.Nếu không được phát hiện sớm và điều trị kịp thời nó có thể gây biến chứng cho mọi cơ quan trong cơ thể.



Nguyên nhân: do xoắn khuẩn nhạt gây ra. Là xoắn khuẩn yếu, sống trong môi trường ẩm ướt, tuy nhiên chỉ sống được vài tiếng sau khi ra ngoài cơ thể.

Con đường lây truyền: chủ yếu qua con đường tình dục, ngoài ra còn lây truyền từ mẹ sang con( trong quá trình mang thai, cho con bú), cũng có thể lây truyền qua đường máu.

Triệu chứng Giang mai:

  • GĐ1: là giai đoạn dễ lây nhiễm, xuất hiện sau nhiễm xoắn khuẩn từ 10-90 ngày có thể kéo dài từ 1-5 tuần. Bộ phận sinh dục xuất hiện các mụn gọi là các săng có hình thù là những đốm viêm loét lõm, hình tròn hoặc hình bầu dục, có màu hồng tươi, viền bóng mượt, sờ vào ráp cứng như sụn, không đau, không mủ, không ngứa.

  • GĐ2: xoắn khuẩn theo đường máu xâm nhập vào các bộ phận của cơ thể.Trên da, niêm mạc xuất hiện các ban màu nâu đốm đỏ hoặc đỏ không gây ngứa. Người bệnh có thể xuất hiện các triệu chứng sốt, nổi hạch, đau đầu, chán ăn, suy nhược, mỏi cơ, rụng tóc.Gđoạn này có thể lây nhiễm cho bạn tình nếu không có biện pháp bảo vệ.

  • GĐ3: Ở nữ các triệu chứng của giang mai hầu như biến mất.Tuy nhiên, bệnh vẫn tồn tại và âm thầm phát triển, tái phát bất cứ lúc nào.

  • Ở nam xuất hiện các củ giang mai, có thể teo đi hoặc lở loét, khó lành, khi lành thường để lại sẹo.

  • GĐ4: nội tạng của người sẽ bị xoắn khuẩn giang mai phá hủy, gây ra các bệnh như: giang mai thần kinh, giang mai tim mạch, viêm màng não… có thể dẫn đến tử vong nếu không được xử trí gì

Chẩn đoán giang mai:

  • Lâm sàng: bệnh nhân xuất hiện các triệu chứng nêu trên,

  • Cận lâm sàng:

  • Tìm vi khuẩn: soi tươi bệnh phẩm lấy trên vết trợt, vết loét, vết sẩn, mảng niêm mạc, chọc trong hạch

  • Phản ứng huyết thanh:RPR-VDRL,TPHA- FTA-TPI(các phản ứng đặc hiệu).

Phòng chống lây nhiễm giang mai:

  • Quan hệ tình dục an toàn : Sử dụng bao cao su khi quan hệ với những đối tượng không xác định được tình trạng sức khỏe

  • Hạn chế tối đa số lượng bạn tình, quan hệ chung thủy 1 vợ -  1 chồng.

  • Sau những trường hợp quan hệ không an toàn hoặc gặp tai nạn như rách bao, thủng bao thì cần phải đi làm xét nghiệm để đánh giá chính xác nhất.

>>>Các thông tin khác :Phụ nữ bị giang mai nguy hiểm hơn nam giới


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