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HIV và các phương thức lây truyền  

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04:05 17/05/2016

HIV là tên viết tắt của cụm từ “ Human Immunodeficieny Virus” có nghĩa là virus gây suy giảm miễn dịch ở người. AIDS là viết tắt của cụm từ “ Acquired Immunodeficieny Sy.. [..]

1.Khái quát chung

HIV là tên viết tắt của cụm từ “ Human Immunodeficieny Virus” có nghĩa  là virus gây suy giảm miễn dịch ở người.

AIDS là viết tắt của cụm từ “ Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrom” có nghĩa là Hội chứng suy giảm miễn dịch mắc phải

Đặc điểm sinh học của HIV là sau khi xâm nhập vào cơ thể người nhiễm sẽ phát triển nhân lên trong hệ miễn dịch và phá hủy các tế bào miễn dịch. Khi tế bào miễn dịch suy giảm sẽ tạo thuận lợi cho sự xuất hiện của các bệnh nhiễm trùng cơ hội, gây ra các triệu chứng lien quan và các bệnh lí khối u. Nguyên nhân tử vong chính ở người nhiễm hiv là do các bệnh cơ hội.


2. Sức đề kháng

HIV rất dễ bị tiêu diệt bởi các tác nhân lí hóa thông thường.

-          Ở dạng lỏng: với nhiệt độ 56 độ C chết trong 20 phút

-          Ở dạng đông khô: ở nhiệt độ 68 độ C HIV bị chết trong 2 giờ.

-          Các hóa chất như nước  Javel  bất hoạt hiv trong 20 phút.

-          Cồn 70 độ diệt HIV trong 3- 5 phút.

-          Các hóa chất có clo bất hoạt HIV trong vòng 15- 20 phút, ph kiềm hoặc toan đều diệt nhanh hơn.

3. Các phương thức lây truyền

Nhìn chung sự lây nhiêm HIV phụ thuộc vào:

-          Số lượng virus HIV có trong máu, dịch cơ thể của người nhiễm HIV

-          Đường vào của HIV

-          Thời gian tiếp xúc

-          Sức đề kháng(hay miễn dịch) của cơ thể

-          Độc tính hay tính gây nhiễm của virus.

Mặc dù phát hiện được HIV ở mọi mô và dịch của người bị nhiễm song HIV tập trung nhiều nhất trong máu, dịch tiết của cơ quan sinh dục, sữa mẹ…nên có 3 con đường lây bệnh chính:

  • Đường máu: HIV lây qua truyền máu, các sản phẩm của máu, các dụng cụ chích xuyên qua da không được vô trùng hoặc qua các vết thương khi tiếp xúc với máu và dịch của bệnh nhân HIV.
  • Qua đường tình dục: Đây là đường lây nhiễm HIV nhiều nhất chiếm 80%. Nguy cơ lây nhiễm càng cao đối với người nhận tinh dịch, có viêm loét sinh dục, kiểu quan hệ tình dục gây chảy máu…
  • Lây từ mẹ sang con: mẹ bị nhiêm HIV có thể lây cho con từ tuần thứ 21 của thai nghén, trong thời kì chu sinh và qua sữa mẹ.

Nguồn tổng hợp

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