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Những biến chứng nguy hiểm khi mắc thủy đậu?  

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08:01 21/01/2015

Bệnh thủy đậu là bệnh truyền nhiễm, gây dịch, do virus Varicella Zoster gây nên. Bệnh lây qua đường hô hấp, trên lâm sàng bệnh có biểu hiện sốt, phát ban dạng nốt phỏng ở.. [..]

Bệnh thủy đậu là bệnh truyền nhiễm, gây dịch, do virus Varicella Zoster gây nên. Bệnh lây qua đường hô hấp, trên lâm sàng bệnh có biểu hiện sốt, phát ban dạng nốt phỏng ở da và niêm mạc. Bệnh thường diễn biến lành tính, tuy nhiên có thể có một số biến chứng như viêm não, viêm phổi...


Các biến chứng:

Viêm da bội nhiễm do liên cầu hoặc tụ cầu:

Là biến chứng hay gặp nhất. Các vi khuẩn gây bội nhiễm thường là liên cầu và tụ cầu. Các nốt phỏng nước hóa mủ đục và khi vỡ gây nên tình trạng viêm da toàn thân, viêm mô, áp xe dưới da, thậm chí có thể gây nên tình trạng nhiễm khuẩn huyết.

Viêm phổi thủy đậu:

Thường gặp ở người lớn hơn trẻ em. Viêm phổi xuất hiện vào ngày thứ 3 đến thứ 5 của bệnh, biểu hiện ho sốt, nhịp thở nhanh, xanh xao, đau ngực, khạc ra máu, tim nhanh. X-quang phổi thấy các nốt mờ và viêm phổi kẽ. Tiến triển của viêm phổi song song với diễn biến ở da, tuy nhiên bệnh nhân có thể có sốt kéo dài và chúc năng phổi có thể giảm trong nhiều tuần. Điều trj bằng acyclovir có tác dụng cải thiện viêm phổi.

Biến chứng hệ thần kinh trung ương:

-          Viêm não: Gặp 0,1-0,2% trẻ em bị thủy đậu. Thời gian xuất hiện từ ngày thứ 3 đến ngày thứ 8, chậm nhất có thể gặp vào ngày thứ 21 của bệnh. Bệnh nhân sốt cao hơn, nhức đầu, rối loạn tri giác thậm chí có co giật và hôn mê. Thăm khám có thể thấy liệt thần kinh khu trú, dấu hiệu Babinsky. Dịch não tủy trong có tăng tế bào lymphocyt và albumin tăng nhẹ. Khi khỏi có thể để lại di chứng.

-          Viêm màng não: sốt thường kéo dài hơn, đau đầu nhiều, nôn và buồn nôn. Thăm khám có hội chứng màng não. Nước não tủy trong, tăng tế bào lymphocyt và albumin tăng nhẹ.

-          Hội chứng Guillain – Barre.

Các biến chứng khác:

Viêm cơ tim, viêm giác mạc, viêm khớp, viêm cầu thận, viêm thận, xuất huyết nội tạng. Tổn thương gan....

Theo sách Bài giảng bệnh truyền nhiễm – NXB Y Học.

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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