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08:12 23/12/2014

Bệnh thủy đậu là bệnh truyền nhiễm, gây dịch, do virus Varicella Zoster gây nên. Bệnh lây qua đường hô hấp, trên lâm sàng bệnh có biểu hiện sốt, phát ban dạng nốt phỏng ở.. [..]

Bệnh thủy đậu là bệnh truyền nhiễm, gây dịch, do virus Varicella Zoster gây nên. Bệnh lây qua đường hô hấp, trên lâm sàng bệnh có biểu hiện sốt, phát ban dạng nốt phỏng ở da và niêm mạc. Bệnh thường diễn biến lành tính, tuy nhiên có thể có một số biến chứng như viêm não, viêm phổi... Sau khi mắc bệnh, bệnh nhân có miễn dịch bền vững.


Tác nhân gây bệnh là virus Varicella Zoster (VZV) thuộc họ virus Herpesviridae. Con người là ổ chứa bệnh duy nhất với virus Herpes varicella. Người phát tán virus qua những bụi nước của đường hô hấp khi ho và hắt hơi. Ngoài ra bệnh cũng có thể lây nhiễm khi tiếp xúc trực tiếp với các phỏng nước của người bệnh.

Phòng bệnh không đặc hiệu

Cần phát hiện bệnh sớm ở thời kỳ khởi phát để cách ly, tránh lây lan trong cộng đồng. Đối với người suy giảm miễn dịch có tiếp xúc với nguồn beehj và trẻ sơ sinh có mẹ mắc thủy đậu trong giai đoạn chu sinh sẽ có nguy cơ bị thủy đậu nặng, nên tiêm Globulin miễn dịch thủy đậu đặc hiệu VZVG hoặc HZIP.

Nên dùng sớm trong vòng 72-96 giờ, liều dùng 125 đơn vị/10kg, liều tối đa 625 đơn vị. Dùng đường tiêm bắp hoặc tĩnh mạch. Thời gian bảo vệ là 3 tuần.

Phòng bệnh đặc hiệu

Vaccin thủy đậu được sản xuất từ virus sống giảm độc lực. Tiêm vaccin có hiệu quả miễn dịch cao 97% và kéo dài. Sau tiêm có thể vẫn mắc thủy đậu nhưng hầu hết có bệnh cảnh lâm sàng nhẹ.

Tuổi bắt đầu tiêm ngừa từ 12 tháng tuổi đến 12 tuổi, tiêm một liều duy nhất. Người lớn và trẻ từ 13 tháng tuổi trở lên chưa bị thủy đậu hoặc chwua tiêm phòng nên tiêm phòng 2 mũi cách nhau 6 tuần là tốt nhất hoặc trong 4-6 năm.

Chống chỉ định đối với phụ nữ mang thai, người dị ứng với gelatin neomycin, người suy giảm miễn dịch trung gian tế bào.

Theo sách Bài giảng bệnh truyền nhiễm – NXB Y Học.

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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