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Những thể lao nào dễ nhiễm khi chưa được tiêm chủng BCG?  

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09:01 23/01/2015

Bệnh lao gây ra bởi vi khuẩn lao (BK), do sự lây nhiễm trực tiếp. Trẻ em - nhất là trẻ sơ sinh dễ bị lây bệnh. Ở trẻ em, bệnh lao chiếm tỷ lệ 10 - 15% trong số những trườ.. [..]

Bệnh lao gây ra bởi vi khuẩn lao (BK), do sự lây nhiễm trực tiếp. Trẻ em - nhất là trẻ sơ sinh dễ bị lây bệnh. Ở trẻ em, bệnh lao chiếm tỷ lệ 10 - 15% trong số những trường hợp bệnh lao mới mắc hằng năm. Trẻ em có thể bị mắc tất cả các thể lao, tuy nhiên, thường gặp hơn cả là các thể: Lao sơ nhiễm hay lao khởi đầu, lao cấp tính, lao hô hấp sau sơ nhiễm lao phổi và lao màng phổi, lao ngoài phổi.


Lao sơ nhiễm: Thường gặp nhiều nhất. Sơ nhiễm lao thông thường không có triệu chứng hoặc có triệu chứng cảm cúm thoáng qua hay nóng sốt mệt mỏi, chán ăn hoặc ít khi có triệu chứng giống như thương hàn, sốt cao, mệt mỏi nhưng không rối loạn tiêu hóa.

Lao cấp tính: Trong đó lao màng não, lao kê cấp tính là hai biến chứng nặng và sớm của sơ nhiễm lao dễ dẫn đến tử vong nếu không được chẩn đoán, điều trị sớm và để lại di chứng trầm trọng nếu chẩn đoán muộn. Bệnh có thể xảy ra ở mọi lứa tuổi, nhưng nhiều nhất ở trẻ nhỏ không tiêm vắc-xin BCG, trẻ dưới 2 tuổi.

Lao kê: Là lao cấp ở phổi, xuất hiện trong những tuần lễ đầu sau sơ nhiễm lao với triệu chứng sốt cao, mạch nhanh, nôn mửa, đau bụng, tiêu chảy, không có nốt hồng ban trên bụng (khác thương hàn) và luôn luôn có dấu hiệu hô hấp khó thở, tím tái. Trẻ bị lao kê thường dễ dẫn đến lao màng não.

Lao đường hô hấp sau sơ nhiễm: Bao gồm lao màng phổi (hiếm gặp ở trẻ em dưới 5 tuổi, thường xảy ra ở trẻ lớn, 6 tháng sau sơ nhiễm lao), với triệu chứng mệt, sút cân, ho, đau tức ngực và lao phổi, với triệu chứng sốt nhẹ về chiều, mệt, chán ăn, sút cân, tức ngực, ho có đờm hay có máu.

Lao ngoài phổi: Thường là biến chứng chậm hơn sau sơ nhiễm lao. Có nhiều dạng lao ngoài phổi như lao cột sống: giai đoạn đầu thường trẻ có biểu hiện đau vùng cột sống rồi từ từ gù lưng; Lao xương, khớp: trẻ bị sưng đau khớp và chảy mủ ở xương khớp rò ra ngoài da; Lao hệ niệu: trẻ có triệu chứng đi tiểu ra máu, thường kèm theo sưng tinh hoàn nếu là bé trai; Lao hạch: nổi hạch thường từng chùm, dính, nếu để muộn sẽ gây rò mủ làm sẹo xấu; Lao ruột: đi tiêu lỏng hoặc đi tiêu ra đờm, máu kéo dài.

Theo báo Sức khỏe và đời sống.

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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