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Phác đồ dùng thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV  

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09:06 02/06/2017

HIV là một căn bệnh thế kỷ, khi có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV người bệnh thường rất hoang mang, lo lắng, sợ hãi. Để giảm được tỷ lệ lây nhiễm HIV và số người nhiễm HIV Bộ Y tế.. [..]

HIV là một căn bệnh thế kỷ, khi có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV người bệnh thường rất hoang mang, lo lắng, sợ hãi. Để giảm được tỷ lệ lây nhiễm HIV và số người nhiễm HIV Bộ Y tế ban hành thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV.

1.Phác đồ của thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV: có 3 phác đồ Bộ Y tế đưa ra

- Phác đồ 1: Tenofovir 300mg+ Lamivudine 300mg+ Efavirenz 600mg.

- Phác đồ 2: Tenofovir 300mg+ Emtracitabine 200mg+ Efavirenz 600mg.

- Phác đồ 3: Zidovudine 600mg+ Lamivudine 300mg+ Efavirenz 600mg.


2. Các trường hợp chỉ dịnh dùng thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV: Dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV càng sớm càng tốt cho các đối tượng có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV tốt nhất trước 72 giờ sau khi có nguy cơ:

- Quan hệ tình dục không an toàn: không dùng bao cao su hoặc có dùng bao cao su nhưng bị rách, thủng hay tuột.

- Có vết thương hở và tiếp xúc trực tiếp với dịch cơ thể có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV như dịch nước bọt có máu, sữa mẹ, dịch tiết sinh dục, dịch não tủy, dịch ối, dịch màng tim, dịch màng phổi.

- Sử dụng chung bơm kim tiêm với người nghiện chích ma túy.

- Dẵm, đạp phải bơm kim tiêm có máu trong lòng bơm.

* Không chỉ định dự phòng phơi nhiễm trong các trường hợp sau:

- Người bị phơi nhiễm đã nhiễm HIV.

- Nguồn gây phơi nhiễm được khẳng định là  HIV âm tính.

- Phơi nhiễm với các dịch cơ thể không có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV như nước mắt, dịch nước bọt không dính máu, nước tiểu và mồ hôi.

3. Các chú ý khi dùng thuốc dự phòng phơi nhiễm HIV

- Theo dõi tác dụng phụ của thuốc: đau đầu, mệt mỏi, choáng váng, tăng men gan…Không nên tự ý ngừng điều trị khi có tác dụng phụ nhẹ hoặc thoáng qua. Nếu tác dụng phụ nặng cần đến cơ sở y tế để được thăm khám và tư vấn.

- Xét nghiệm lại HIV sau 3 tháng  theo khuyến cáo của Bộ Y tế.

- Trong quá trình dùng thuốc tránh có nguy cơ mới, nên quan hệ an toàn, thwujc hiện tiêm chích an toàn và không cho con bú cho đến khi chắc chắn an toàn với HIV.

- Nên đi khám các bệnh lây truyền qua đường tình dục khác như lậu, giang mai, sùi mào gà.

- Đi tiêm vaccin viêm gan B nếu chưa bị nhiễm viêm gan B.


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