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Phụ nữ mang thai bị nhiễm HIV cần làm gì?  

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07:05 05/05/2015

Phụ nữ mang thai nhiễm HIV, trong khi sinh nên tránh các can thiệp như bấm ối, forcep, cắt tầng sinh môn..... [..]

Phụ nữ nhiễm HIV cần ăn đủ 4 nhóm chất dinh dưỡng/ngày gồm: nhóm bột đường (cơm, bánh mì, bắp…); nhóm thức ăn giàu đạm (thịt, cá, tôm, sữa, đậu); nhóm chất béo (dầu ăn, bơ, đậu phộng…); nhóm vitamin và khoáng chất (rau quả, trứng, sữa, trái cây…).


Bên cạnh đó, tư vấn xét nghiệm HIV trước sinh có vai trò đặc biệt quan trọng trong việc đánh giá tình trạng HIV của phụ nữ mang thai, từ đó xác định các biện pháp can thiệp phù hợp, đặc biệt là dự phòng lây truyền hiv từ mẹ sang con.

Lây truyền HIV từ mẹ sang con xảy ra cả ở 3 thời kỳ: 10% trong thời kỳ đầu mang thai, do máu mẹ qua màng rau thai bị tổn thương sang máu con, 15%-20% do thời kỳ chuyển dạ đẻ và 10% trong thời kỳ cho con bú.

Với phụ nữ mang thai nhiễm HIV, dừng điều trị thuốc ARV sẽ dẫn đến tình trạng suy giảm miễn dịch, gây khả năng kháng thuốc, làm tăng nguy cơ lây truyền HIV cho con. Nếu được uống thuốc theo phác đồ điều trị sớm, có thể bảo đảm hiệu quả trong việc phòng chống lây nhiễm.

Các nghiên cứu cho thấy, khi điều trị dự phòng bằng thuốc ARV, việc sinh nở và nuôi con của những bà mẹ nhiễm HIV vẫn an toàn. Ngoài ra, với những phụ nữ có HIV mang thai còn ở tình trạng miễn dịch tốt, sẽ được tiến hành điều trị dự phòng bằng AZT liên tục cho đến khi chuyển dạ. Đồng thời cứ 3 tháng một lần, thai phụ cần kiểm tra tế bào CD4 để được điều trị ARV theo những phác đồ khác nhau.

Phụ nữ mang thai nhiễm HIV, trong khi sinh nên tránh các can thiệp như bấm ối, forcep, cắt tầng sinh môn. Chỉ định mổ lấy thai, nhanh chóng lau sạch máu và sản dịch cho trẻ sơ sinh được coi là biện pháp tối ưu.

Sau khi sinh, người mẹ nên nuôi trẻ bằng sữa thay thế để tránh nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV khi cho trẻ bú. Những trẻ được sinh ra từ bà mẹ có HIV cần được giới thiệu và chuyển tới các phòng khám để theo dõi và điều trị ARV.

Nguồn Sức Khỏe & Đời sống

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin tham khảo về sức khỏe. Mọi thắc mắc các bạn có thể gọi đến tổng đài tư vấn1900.6180 để được tư vấn cụ thể.


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