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Tác dụng phụ của thuốc dự phòng sau phơi nhiễm HIV(PEP)  

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05:06 15/06/2017

Sau khi có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV trước 72h có thể dùng thuốc dự phòng sau phơi nhiễm HIV(PEP) để được dự phòng tốt nhất về HIV. Theo nghiên cứu lâm sàng thì hiệu quả của .. [..]

Sau khi có nguy cơ lây nhiễm HIV trước 72h có thể dùng thuốc dự phòng sau phơi nhiễm HIV(PEP) để được dự phòng tốt nhất về HIV. Theo nghiên cứu lâm sàng thì hiệu quả của thuốc rất cao do đó thuốc cũng có khá nhiều tác dụng phụ. Một số tác dụng hay gặp của thuốc như sau:

Đau đầu: Khi uống thuốc PEP người dùng hay có biểu hiện đau đầu, để cải thiện tình trạng này có thể dùng thuốc giảm đau paracetamol. Tuy nhiên paracetamol lại được thải độc qua gan nên uống với liều lượng vừa phải, tham khảo ý kiến bác sĩ hoặc có thể theo dõi chức năng gan trước và sau khi dùng thuốc.

Buồn nôn: Có thể uống sau ăn no, trước khi uống thuốc tránh ăn uống nhiều những loại thực phẩm dễ gây nôn như sữa, đồ hải sản, đồ lên men, đồ chiên rán.


Tiêu chảy: Lúc mới uống thuốc có thể bị tiêu chảy, nhưng nếu số lượng đi ngoài nhiều có thể dẫn đến mất nước- điện giải thì nên bổ sung qua đường uống như uống tăng nước đun sôi để nguội hoặc dùng oresol. Có thể sử dụng một số loại thuốc cầm tiêu chảy như lopradium, imodium…nên có sự tham khảo ý kiến của bác sĩ hoặc dược sĩ trước khi sử dụng.

Nổi ban ngứa: Nếu chỉ nổi ban đỏ, rải rác và ngứa có thể uống thuốc kháng histamin là sẽ khỏi; nhưng nếu nổi ban nhiều khắp cơ thể và ngứa nhiều thì nên đi khám chuyên khoa và có thể nên dùng thuốc tránh đe dọa tính mạng.

Rối loạn giấc ngủ, mệt mỏi: Do tác dụng phụ của thuốc nên dùng thuốc vào buổi tối để hạn chế tác dụng phụ và ít ảnh hưởng đến công việc. Nếu thuốc gây khó ngủ, ngủ không ngon có thể dùng thuốc an thần để dễ ngủ hơn hoặc dùng trà hoa cúc, ngâm chân trước khi ngủ.

Một số độc tính nghiêm trọng, tác dụng phụ có thể gặp khi dùng thuốc PEP:

Bệnh lý gan: Tăng men gan, giảm chức năng gan, tổn thương gan. Nếu men gan tăng gấp 5 lần so với bình thường cần dừng thuốc ngay.

Bệnh lý thần kinh trung ương: Rối loạn tâm thần, trầm cảm, rối loạn lo âu. Khi có biểu hiện lạ về thần kinh nên đi khám chuyên khoa và dùng thuốc.

Phân bố lại mỡ: Biểu hiện tăng tích mỡ ở ngực, bụng; teo mỡ ở cánh tay, cẳng chân.

Bệnh lý thần kinh ngoại vi: Biểu hiện rối loạn cảm giác ngoại vi hay gặp nhất là khó khăn trong đi lại. Cần dùng vitamin B liều cao, nếu nặng phải thay thế bằng thuốc.

Viêm tụy.


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