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Tiêu chuẩn chẩn đoán bệnh nhân AIDS  

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07:06 28/06/2017

HIV/AIDS là hội chứng gây suy giảm miễn dịch mắc phải ở người. Tuy nhiên khá nhiều người còn nhầm tường cứ là bệnh nhân nhiễm HIV thì là bệnh AIDS, nhưng điều này không h.. [..]

HIV/AIDS là hội chứng gây suy giảm miễn dịch mắc phải ở người. Tuy nhiên khá nhiều người còn nhầm tường cứ là bệnh nhân nhiễm HIV thì là bệnh AIDS, nhưng điều này không hoàn toàn chính xác. AIDS là một giai đoạn của nhiễm HIV mà trong đó hệ miễn dịch suy giảm một cách trầm trọng khiến cho cơ thể bị mắc những nhiễm trùng cơ hội.

Tiêu chẩn để chẩn đoán một bệnh nhân nhiễm HIV chuyển sang giai đoạn AIDS :

Theo đó: Bệnh nhân AIDS là tất cả bệnh nhân nhiễm HIV dương tính ( +) mà số lượng tế bào lympho TCD4 <200 cho dù thuộc hạng lâm sàng nào.


Nếu một bệnh nhân có HIV(+) có một trong 24 bệnh lâm sàng chỉ điểm thuốc nhóm C đều là bệnh nhân AIDS :

-        Bệnh do nấm:

  • Nhiễm Canida khí phế quản hoặc phổi
  • Nhiễm Canida thực quản
  • Coccidioidomycosis  rải rác hoặc ở ngoài phổi
  • Cryptococus ngoài phổi
  • Histoplasma ngoài phổi hoặc   rải rác

-        Bệnh do ký sinh trùng:

  • Cryptosporidiosis đường ruột kéo dài mãn tính trên 1 tháng
  • Isosporiasis đường ruột kéo dài mãn tính trên 1 tháng
  • Pneumocystis carini nay đổi là Jiroveci vì chỉ có P.Jeroveci mới gây bệnh ở người xếp giữa nấm và động vật đơn bào
  • Toxoplasmosis não

-        Bệnh do virus

  • Cytomegalovirus ( Ngoài gan lách và hạch)
  • Viêm võng mạc do Cytomegalovirus
  • Viêm não chất trắng đa ổ tiến triển
  • Herpes simplex gây viêm thực quản hay phổi, phế quản có loét mãn tính kéo dài trên 1 tháng

-        Các loại U

  • Ung thư cổ tử cung có xâm nhập
  • Sarcoma Kaposi
  • U lympho
  • U Burkit hay tương đương
  • U lympho, nguyên bào miễn dịch hay tương đương
  • U lympho não tiên phát
  • Hội chứng suyy mòn do HIV

-        Bệnh do vi khuẩn

  • Lao phổi ngoài phổi
  • Bệnh do Mycobacterium  avium complex hoặc Mycobacterium Kansasi ngoài phổi hoặc rải rác.
  • Viêm phổi tái đi tái lại nhiều lần
  • Nhiễm trùng huyết do Samonella tái đi tái lại.

Lưu ý: Người nhiễm H hoàn toàn có thể có tuổi thọ như những người bình thường nếu tuân thủ điều trị tốt, sống lành mạnh và thường xuyên kiểm tra sức khỏe để phát hiên nhiễm trùng cơ hội để điều trị kịp thời.


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