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Viêm gan A lây truyền qua con đường nào?  

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09:01 26/01/2016

Bệnh viêm gan A do virut, gọi tắt là viêm gan A (VGA) là bệnh có tỷ lệ mắc cao ở những nước có điều kiện kinh tế còn kém phát triển. Con đường lây lan của bệnh qua đường .. [..]

Bệnh viêm gan A do virut, gọi tắt là viêm gan A (VGA) là bệnh có tỷ lệ mắc cao ở những nước có điều kiện kinh tế còn kém phát triển. Con đường lây lan của bệnh qua đường ăn uống từ người bệnh sang người lành càng làm cho nguy cơ mắc bệnh tăng lên nếu không được kiểm soát một cách đúng đắn.


VGA được xác định là bệnh lây trực tiếp từ người bệnh sang người lành qua thức ăn và nước uống bị nhiễm virut viêm gan A (HAV). HAV đào thải qua phân ở cuối thời kỳ ủ bệnh kéo dài hàng tuần (cho tới khi lui bệnh). Bởi vậy, ăn uống mất vệ sinh là điều kiện thuận lợi cho mắc bệnh. Nhân viên y tế, khách du lịch, cô bảo mẫu... là những đối tượng có nguy cơ cao, dễ mắc phải căn bệnh này. Nhiễm khuẩn thức ăn, nguồn nước là nguy cơ gây ra những vụ dịch lớn nhỏ hiện nay. VGA có thể lây truyền qua truyền máu, tuy nhiên khả năng lây theo phương thức này là rất hy hữu.

VGA là bệnh truyền nhiễm cấp tính, lưu hành khắp trên thế giới, tuy nhiên tính phổ biến khác nhau ở từng vùng. Ở các nước nghèo, các nước đang phát triển với điều kiện vệ sinh kém, bệnh VGA rất phổ biến. Ở Đông Nam Á, VGA thường gặp ở trẻ em và thanh thiếu niên. Một nghiên cứu tiến hành ở Indonesia cho biết, có những vùng tỷ lệ nhiễm HAV ở trẻ em dưới 4 tuổi lên đến 90-100%. Việt Nam cũng là nước có mức độ lưu hành rộng rãi căn bệnh này. Một nghiên cứu của các nhà khoa học cho biết tại huyện Tân Châu (An Giang) tỷ lệ nhiễm HAV ở trẻ em là 97%. Tại các bệnh viện, HAV là nguyên nhân của khoảng 30-50% số trường hợp viêm gan cấp. Ngược lại, tại các nước phát triển, như Mỹ, châu Âu, Nhật Bản... nhờ điều kiện sống đầy đủ và vệ sinh cộng với chương trình tiêm chủng vaccin viêm gan A sớm được triển khai nên tỷ lệ nhiễm HAV liên tục giảm.

Theo báo Sức khỏe và đời sống.

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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