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Viêm gan B: con đường lây nhiễm và cách phòng tránh  

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10:05 17/05/2017

Viêm gan B là bệnh gây ra bởi một loại virus có tên Hepatitis B Virus (viết tắt là HBV), còn được gọi là viêm gan siêu vi B. Virus viêm gan B gây tổn thương ở gan dẫn tới.. [..]

Các tin liên quan

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  • Quan hệ bằng miệng có tốt không ?  05:05 02/05/2018
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  • Bệnh lây truyền qua quan hệ tình dục  12:12 19/12/2017
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  • Nguyên nhân tiết sữa bất thường ở vú  05:08 21/08/2017
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  • Tiêm phòng cho trẻ | Lịch tiêm phòng cho trẻ  06:07 20/07/2017
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  • Các loại vaccin cho trẻ nhỏ  10:07 08/07/2017

Viêm gan B là bệnh gây ra bởi một loại virus có tên Hepatitis B Virus (viết tắt là HBV), còn được gọi là viêm gan siêu vi B. Virus viêm gan B gây tổn thương ở gan dẫn tới bệnh viêm gan B cấp tính hoặc mạn tính và lâu dài sẽ dẫn tới các biến chứng nguy hiểm về gan như xơ gan và ung thư gan,..

1. Viêm gan B lây qua đường nào?

Viêm gan B tồn tại trong máu và các dịch cơ thể của người bệnh. Vì thế, viêm gan siêu vi B lây chủ yếu qua ba con đường:

  • Đường máu:

Viêm gan B có thể lây qua trong trường hợp truyền máu, phẫu thuật, tiêm chích ma túy. Ngoài ra, dùng dao cạo râu, bàn chải đánh răng chung với người mắc bệnh cũng có nguy cơ cao mắc bệnh do khả năng trầy xước lớn, virus viêm gan B dễ dàng thâm nhập qua các vết xước này...

  • Đường tình dục:

Virus viêm gan B tồn tại trong tinh dịch và dịch âm đạo. Vì thế, các hành vi tình dục không sử dụng biện pháp an toàn rất dễ lây nhiễm.

  • Từ mẹ sang con:

Người mẹ mắc bệnh viêm gan siêu vi B có thể lây cho thai nhi lên đến 90% nếu không cho bé tiêm huyết thanh trong vòng 24h đầu sau sinh.


2. Yếu tố nguy cơ:

Nguy cơ mắc bệnh viêm gan B được tăng lên nếu:

  • Quan hệ tình dục không an toàn (tức không sử dụng bao cao su) với nhiều người.
  • Quan hệ tình dục không an toàn với người bị nhiễm HBV.
  • Mắc bệnh lây nhiễm qua đường tình dục như lậu hoặc chlamydia.
  • Dùng chung kim tiêm khi tiêm chích ma túy
  • Sống chung với người bị nhiễm HBV mãn tính.
  • Công việc tiếp xúc với máu người.
  • Chạy thận nhân tạo cho bệnh nhân suy thận giai đoạn cuối.
  • Du lịch đến các vùng có tỷ lệ nhiễm HBV cao, chẳng hạn như châu Phi, Trung Đông và Đông Nam Á, và Đông Âu.

3. Cách biện pháp phòng tránh lây nhiễm viêm gan B

  • Tiêm phòng vacxin là biện pháp phòng tránh bệnh hiệu quả nhất.
  • Các trường hợp mẹ đã nhiễm HBV, em bé sau khi sinh cần được tiêm huyết thanh đặc hiệu chống virus HBV trong vòng 24 giờ và sau đó tiêm đầy đủ 3 mũi vacxin.
  • Quan hệ tình dục an toàn, một vợ một chồng, sử dụng bao cao su khi quan hệ.
  • Tránh tiếp xúc trực tiếp với máu, nhất là các nhân viên y tế cần sử dụng các biện pháp an toàn khi làm việc với các bệnh phẩm dính máu, không dùng chung kim tiêm,...


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  • Chăm sóc và vệ sinh đối với bệnh lậu  01:04 16/04/2018
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  • CÁCH XỬ LÝ KHI BỊ CHÓ, MÈO CẮN  04:04 02/04/2018
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  • Triệu chứng bệnh giang mai  09:03 15/03/2018
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  • xử trí khi bị côn trùng đốt  07:03 14/03/2018
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  • Các bệnh nhiễm trùng cơ hội trong HIV  10:05 15/05/2017
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