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Virus dại lây truyền qua đường nào?  

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03:12 18/12/2014

Bệnh dại là bệnh truyền nhiễm cấp tính do virus dại, gây tổn thương hệ thần kinh trung ương của các loài động vật có vú. Bệnh được lây truyền bằng các chất tiết nhiễm vir.. [..]

Bệnh dại là bệnh truyền nhiễm cấp tính do virus dại, gây tổn thương hệ thần kinh trung ương của các loài động vật có vú. Bệnh được lây truyền bằng các chất tiết nhiễm virus dại ( thường là nước bọt qua vết cắn). Hiện nay chưa có phương pháp điều trị cho người mắc bệnh dại khi đã lên cơn. Người mắc bệnh dại chắc chắn dẫn đến tử vong.

 

Tác nhân gây bệnh là gì?

Virus dại thuộc họ Rhabdovirus, chủng Lyssa, có ARN, hình viên đạn. Virus này có sức đề kháng yếu, dễ bị bất hoạt bởi ánh sáng mặt trời, sức nóng....

Virus này có nhiều trong nước bọt, nước tiểu, dịch não tủy của súc vật bj bệnh. Nó xâm nhập vào cơ thể qua vết cắn, xây xước ngoài da (có thể lây truyền qua ghép giác mạc).

Vậy đường lây của virus như thế nào?

Bệnh dại là bệnh của súc vật, phần lớn ổ chứa virus dại là chó hoang dã và cho nhà. Ngoài ra, ổ chứa virus còn ở mèo, chồn,cầy và các lòa động vật có vú khác như loài dơi quỷ ở Nam Mỹ.

Người mắc bệnh do bị nhiễm virus từ súc vật bị bệnh dại qua vết cắn.

Theo dịch tễ có thể chia làm 2 loại :

-          Thể thành thị lan truyền chủ yếu do chó mèo không được tiêm phòng.

-          Thể hoang dã lan truyền chủ yếu do các loài động vật hoang dại như chồn, chó sói, cáo, gấu, cầy, dơi.

Ở nước ta tỷ lệ mắc có giảm trong những năm gần đây, tuy nhiên vẫn là một trong những nước có lưu hành bệnh  dại cao. Ổ chứa virus chủ yếu là chó nhà hiếm thấy ở mèo. Nguyên nhân chính vẫn là do tập quán nuôi chó ở các vùng nông thôn . Cho đến nay việc quản lý và tiêm phòng dại cho chó vẫn chưa được tốt, hơn nữa nhận thức của người dân về tiêm phòng vaccin dại sau khi bị chó cắn còn hạn chế.

Nguồn bài giảng bệnh truyền nhiễm – NSB Y học

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin tham khảo về sức khỏe, nếu có những thắc mắc hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp từ các chuyên gia.



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