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Biểu hiện của khó thở thanh quản là gì?  

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03:08 23/08/2014

Khó thở thanh quản là một tình trạng khó thở cấp tính được coi là một cấp cứu hô hấp ở trẻ em. Khi trẻ có những dấu hiệu sau đây cha mẹ hãy đưa con đến bệnh viện để kểm t.. [..]

Khó thở thanh quản là một tình trạng khó thở cấp tính  được coi là một cấp cứu hô hấp ở trẻ em. Khi trẻ có những dấu hiệu sau đây cha mẹ hãy đưa con đến bệnh viện để kểm tra


1. Chẩn đoán xác định

Chủ yếu dựa vào lâm sàng để chẩn đoán khó thở thanh quản

- Có 3 triệu chứng kinh điển là

+ Khó thở thì hít vào, khó thở chậm

+ Có tiếng rít thanh quản

+ Co kéo cơ hô hấp

- Có 4 triệu chứng phụ hay gặp:

+ Khàn tiếng hay mất tiếng (khi nói, khi ho, khóc)

+ Đầu gật gù khi thở, thường ngửa đầu ra sau trong hít vào.

+ Quan sát thấy sụn thanh quản nhô lên khi hít vào.

+ Nhăn mặt và phập phồng cánh mũi.

2. Chẩn đoán mức độ khó thở thanh quản

Đánh giá mức độ khó thở thanh quản rất quan trọng. Điều này giúp cho tiên lượng và có thái độ xử trí kịp thời. Có 3 mức độ khó thở thanh quản theo 3 mức độ nặng nhẹ:

Độ 1:

-Khàn và rè tiếng khi khóc, nói.

- Tiếng ho còn trong hay hơi rè.

- Biểu hiện khó thở vào chưa điển hình, tiếng rít thanh quản nhẹ hoặc chưa ro, co kéo cơ hô hấp phụ ít.

-Tình trạng toàn thân chưa ảnh hưởng.


Độ 2:

- Mất tiếng , nói không ro từ.

-Tiếng ho ông ổng như chó sủa.

-Triệu chứng khó thở thanh quản điển hình, tiếng rít thanh quản rõ, co kéo cơ hô hấp mạnh.

-Trẻ kích thích, vật vã, hốt hoảng, lo sợ.

Độ 3:

- Mất tiếng hoàn toàn, khóc hoặc nói không thành tiếng.

-Không ho thành tiếng hoặc không ho được.

-Triệu chứng khó thở dữ dội.

-Tình trạng toàn thân bị ảnh hưởng rõ thần kinh (hôn mê, lờ đờ hay vật vã), tim mạch, da tái hây vã mồ hôi…

3. Nguyên nhân gây khó thở thanh quản cấp

- Dị vật đường thở: có hội chứng xâm nhập: ho, khó thở, tím tái.

-Viêm thanh quản cấp tính: do vi khuẩn hay virus.

- Tetani: thường gặp ở trẻ còi xương có biểu hiện co thắt thanh quản cấp tính.

- Bạch hầu thanh quản: có thể khởi phát từ từ nhưng khi có giả mạc thì khó thở dữ dội.

- Viêm thanh quản do sởi: có biểu hiện viêm long đường hô hấp. mọc ban sởi và dựa vào dịch tễ học.

- áp xe thành sau họng: Biểu hiện nhiêm trùng nặng và không nuốt được.

Nguồn tổng hợp

Chú ý: Nếu con bạn có nhưng triệu chứng như trên hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn sức khỏe trẻ em 1900.6180 để được tư vấn cụ thể.


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