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Những điều cần biết về bệnh hen phế quản  

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02:08 23/08/2014

Hen phế quản là hiện tượng viêm mạn tính ở phế quản, gây ra sưng và hẹp lòng phế quản. Hiện tượng hẹp phế quản thường hồi phục hoàn toàn hoặc ít nhất một phần khi điều tr.. [..]

Hen phế quản là hiện tượng viêm mạn tính ở phế quản, gây ra sưng và hẹp lòng phế quản. Hiện tượng hẹp phế quản thường hồi phục hoàn toàn hoặc ít nhất một phần khi điều trị.


1. Tác nhân gây bệnh hen phế quản

Tác nhân di ứng:

- Phấn hoa theo mùa

- Bụi, nấm mốc, vật nuôi, các thành phần của côn trùng

- Thực phẩm như cá, trứng, đậu phộng, sữa bò, đậu nành

- Các chất phụ gia như sulfite

- Các tác nhân có liên quan đến công việc như chất latex

Khoảng 80% trẻ em và 50% người lớn bị hen phế quản đều có dị ứng.

Tác nhân gây kích thích:

- Nhiễm trùng hô hấp: chẳng hạn như cảm cúm, viêm phế quản, viêm xoang

- Thuốc: Như aspirin, các thuốc kháng viêm không steroid (NSAIDs) khác, thuốc ức chế thụ thể beta (thường được dùng để điều trị cao huyết áp và một số bệnh tim)

- Hút thuốc lá

- Các yếu tố ngoài môi trường như khói, thay đổi thời tiết, mùi diesel

- Các yếu tố trong nhà như nước sơn, bột giặt, khử mùi, hóa chất, nước hoa

- Ban đêm

- Bệnh lý trào ngược dạ dày - thực quản (GERD)

- Tập thể dục: ví dụ như trong điều kiện lạnh và khô

- Các yếu tố liên quan đến công việc như hóa chất, bụi, gas, kim loại

- Các yếu tố cảm xúc: cười, khóc, hò hét, đau buồn...

- Các yếu tố liên quan đến nội tiết tố (hormon): VD như hội chứng tiền mãn kinh

2. Các triệu chứng của hen phế quản

- Thở nhanh (Thở ngắn): Đặc biệt là có kèm gắng sức hoặc vào buổi tối.

 

- Thở khò khè: nghe có tiếng rít khi thở ra

- Ho: Có thể kéo dài, thường nhiều vào ban đêm và sáng sớm, có thể xuất hiện sau khi tập thể dục, hoặc khi tiếp xúc với không khí lạnh và khô.

- Nặng ngực: Có thể xuất hiện đi kèm hoặc không đi kèm với các triệu chứng trên.

Nguồn tổng hợp

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia


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