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Tác hại của rượu đối với thị giác  

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12:12 01/12/2012

Tình trạng sử dụng rượu nhiều, thường xuyên và kéo dài ngày càng phổ biến tại Việt nam. Theo Viện Chiến lược và Chính sách Y tế, bình quân mỗi người Việt nam tiêu thụ gần.. [..]

Bia rượu có nhiều tác hại đến sức khỏe.

 Khi sử dụng rượu quá nhiều, quá trình chuyển hóa và thải trừ quá tải, lượng cồn trong máu quá cao và kéo dài sẽ gây ngộ độc và gây ảnh hưởng đến rất nhiều cơ quan trong cơ thể như viêm loét đường tiêu hóa, tổn thương gan… đặc biệt gây giảm thị lực do ngộ độc dây thần kinh thị giác.

Rượu (Alcohol) là hợp chất hữu cơ có chứa một hay nhiều nhóm OH. Có nhiều loại rượu: Etylic, Methylic, Isopropanol, Ethylenglycol, Rượu thường được sử dụng để uống là rượu etylic hay còn gọi là ethanol. Khi uống rượu vào cơ thể, nó được hấp thu nhanh với 20% hấp thu tại dạ dày và 80% tại ruột non, sau 30-60 phút toàn bộ rượu được hấp thu hết. Sau khi hấp thu, rượu được chuyển hóa chủ yếu tại gan (90%).

 

Ngộ độc thị thần kinh do rượu có các đặc điểm sau:

-    Gặp ở những người uống rượu nhiều, uống liên tục trong một thời gian dài

-         Tổn thương gặp ở cả hai mắt

-         Thị lực giảm từ từ, thị trường thu hẹp

-         Đáy mắt: đĩa thị bình thường hoặc bạc màu phía thái dương, nếu tiến triển xấu có thể dẫn đến teo dây thần kinh thị giác

Cơ chế bệnh sinh

Các giả thuyết cho rằng tổn thương thần kinh thị giác là do thiếu dinh dưỡng, rượu làm thay đổi tính thấm của màng tế bào và ức chế chuyển hóa oxy, đồng thời có thiếu hụt kẽm do giảm hấp thu ở đường tiêu hóa nên tác động trực tiếp làm rối loạn dẫn truyền sợi thần kinh.

Điều trị:

- Ngừng uống rượu

- Thuốc giãn mạch và vitamin nhóm B

- Dùng các thuốc thải độc ở gan

Tiên lượng

-  Nếu được điều trị ở giai đoạn sớm thị lực có thể phục hồi một phần

-  Giai đoạn muộn khi đã có teo dây thần kinh thị giác thị lực khó phục hồi

Chú ý:  Nếu bạn có thắc mắc về các bệnh lý của mắt hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài  tư vấn sức khỏe 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn của các chuyên gia. Chúc các bạn sức khỏe!

BS. Đoàn Hằng ( theo bv Mắt TƯ)

 


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