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Những xét nghiệm cơ bản trong nam khoa  

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01:01 23/01/2017

Xét nghiệm nam khoa là một trong những bước để đánh giá được chính xác chức năng sinh sản của nam giới. Không chỉ bao gồm xét nghiệm tinh dịch đồ, mà những xét nghiệm nội.. [..]

Xét nghiệm nam khoa là một trong những bước để đánh giá được chính xác chức năng sinh sản của nam giới. Không chỉ bao gồm xét nghiệm tinh dịch đồ, mà những xét nghiệm nội tiết khác cũng vô cùng quan trọng:

1. Xét nghiệm Testosteron

-         Đây là hormone giới tính chủ yếu của nam giới. Định lượng Testosteron vào buổi sáng là một trong những xét nghiệm cơ bản.  Xét nghiệm này được chỉ định trong nghi có suy tuyến sinh dục, hiếm muộn, rối loạn cương, suy tuyến sinh dục khởi phát muộn và để theo dõi điểu trị bằng liệu pháp bổ sung testosterone.

-         Xét nghiệm được thực hiện vào buổi sáng trước 10 giờ.

-         Nồng độ testosterone toàn phần vào buổi sáng của nam giới trưởng thành là 300-1000ng/dl < 12-15 nmol/l>. Trung bình là khoảng 525 ng/dl.

2. Xét nghiệm LH và FSH

-         Đây là hai hormone quan trọng giúp kiểm soát chức năng tinh hoàn.

-         Xét nghiệm được chỉ định trong những trường hợp suy tuyến sinh duc, hiếm muộn

-         Trị số bình thường của LH trong huyết thanh  ở trẻ vị nam tuổi dậy thì là 2-12mIU/ml, ở người lớn 1-15mIU/ml.

-         Nồng độ FSH huyết thanh bình thường từ 2-6mIU/ml.

-         Khi chị số FSH tăng cao chứng tỏ sinh tinh bị hư hại ở một hoặc cả hai tinh hoàn.

3. Prolactin

-         Đây là hormone được tiết ra từ tuyến yên. Tăng prolactin trong máu có thể gây suy tuyến sinh dục do làm gián đoạn sự phóng thích GnRH từ hạ đồi

-         Trị số bình thường trong huyết thanh: 1-25 ng/ml ; 0.4 -10 nmol/l

4. Estrogen

-         Việc dư thừa hormone estrogen  có thể do nội sinh hay ngoại sinh. Tăng quá mức estrogen thường gây vú to, rối loạn cương và teo tinh hoàn.

-         Trị số bình thường trong huyết thanh nam giới : 12-34 pg/ml

5. Xét nghiệm về nhiễm trùng sinh dục

-         Bạch cầu trong tinh dịch : Bạch cầu luôn có trong tinh dịch và được coi là tăng bạch cầu hay tinh dịch mủ khi có trên 1*10^6 bạch cầu /ml tinh dịch.

-         Tăng bạch cầu thường liên quan đến phản ứng viêm do nhiễm trùng , phán ứng của hệ miễn dịch với kháng nguyên hoặc với các chất độc như thuốc lá, rượu,…

-         Cấy tinh dịch : Làm khi có dấu hiệu nhiễm trùng hay có tinh dịch mủ.


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