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Nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản và những điều cần biết?  

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08:12 03/12/2014

Nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản là nhiễm khuẩn xảy ra ở phụ nữ sau đẻ mà khởi điểm là từ đường dinh dục (âm đạo, cổ tử cung, tử cung vùng rau bám). Những trường hợp đường vào của vi .. [..]

Nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản là nhiễm khuẩn xảy ra ở phụ nữ sau đẻ mà khởi điểm là từ đường dinh dục (âm đạo, cổ tử cung, tử cung vùng rau bám). Những trường hợp đường vào của vi khuẩn không phải từ bộ phận sinh dục như sốt sau đẻ do bệnh cúm, thương hàn, lao phổi… thì không phải là nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản.

Rất nhiều loại vi khuẩn gây ra nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản: liên cầu, tụ cầu, E.coli, vi khuẩn kị khí. Vi khuẩn có thể từ cơ thể sản phụ, người xung quanh, từ dụng cụ đỡ đẻ, thủ thuật mổ lấy thai, qua các sang chấn ở đường sinh dục vào vùng rau bám tử cung.

Đường lan truyền: từ âm đạo qua cổ tử cung, vào tử cung, lên ống dẫn trứng, vào phúc mạc tiểu khung. Có thể vi khuẩn theo đường bạch huyết, tĩnh mạch vào tổ chức dây chằng rộng.

1. Các yếu tố thuận lọi cho sự phát triển của vi khuẩn?

 

  • Dinh dưỡng kém.
  • Thiếu máu.
  • Nhiễm độc thai nghén.
  • Tại chỗ có viêm âm đạo, tử cung.
  • Ối vỡ non, vỡ sớm.
  • Chuyển dạ kéo dài, thăm khám nhiều.
  • Chấn thương đường sinh dục
  • Thủ thuật  bóc rau, mổ lấy thai.
  • Ứ sản dịch
  • Các hình thái nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản
  • Nhiễm khuẩn tầng sinh môn, âm hộ, âm đạo.
  • Viêm niêm mạc tử cung.
  • Viêm phần phụ và dây chằng rộng.
  • Viêm phúc mạc tiểu khung.
  • Viêm phúc mạc toàn bộ.
  • Nhiễm khuẩn huyết.
  • Viêm tắc tĩnh mạch.

 

2. Đề phòng nhiễm khuẩn hậu sản bằng cách nào?

 

  • Trong khi có thai: điều trị các ổ viêm nhiễm của sản phụ ở da họng, tiết niệu…
  • Trong chuyển dạ: hạn chế thăm khám âm đạo, không để chuyển dạ kéo dài, đề phòng nhiễm khuẩn ối.
  • Trong đẻ: không để sót rau, chỉ định đúng kiểm soát tử cung, bóc rau nhân tạo, đảm bảo khử khuẩn tốt các dụng cụ.
  • Sau đẻ: tránh ứ sản dịch, bệnh phòng sạch sẽ, định kỳ chạy tia cực tím, tăng cường đề kháng sản phụ

 

Theo Bài giảng Sản phụ khoa Tập I – Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo. Nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về vấn đề tâm lý hay sức khỏe, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn nhanh chóng và hiệu quả từ các chuyên gia.


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