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Nhiễm virut rubella khi mang thai – hậu quả khó lường!  

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08:03 23/03/2015

Virut rubella có khả năng truyền từ mẹ sang con làm con bị bệnh nhiễm rubella bẩm sinh. Trong 3 tháng đầu của thai kỳ nếu người mẹ bị nhiễm bệnh thì khả năng con bị bệnh .. [..]

Virut rubella có khả năng truyền từ mẹ sang con làm con bị bệnh nhiễm rubella bẩm sinh. Trong 3 tháng đầu của thai kỳ nếu người mẹ bị nhiễm bệnh thì khả năng con bị bệnh rất cao (ước tính trên 80%); vào những tháng sau của thai kỳ thì khả năng con nhiễm bệnh giảm dần và tổn thương trên thai cũng nhẹ bớt. Virút xâm nhập thai nhi sẽ ảnh hưởng đến quá trình phân bào đưa đến dị tật bào thai nếu trong 3 tháng đầu thai kỳ. Virút làm tổn thương nội mạc mạch máu đưa đến tắc mạch gây thiếu máu nuôi cơ quan. Đây là một trong những nguyên nhân làm sảy thai hoặc sinh non.


Trẻ mắc bệnh rubella trong bụng mẹ sẽ bị tổn thương thần kinh trung ương (chậm phát triển tâm thần, liệt, khiếm khuyết thần kinh vận động…); tổn thương gây đục thủy tinh thể, đục giác mạc gây mù; tổn thương gây bệnh tim bẩm sinh (còn ống động mạch, thông liên thất, hẹp mạch máu…); tổn thương gây điếc thần kinh; ban xuất huyết sau sinh, tổn thương hệ xương khớp; gây một số bệnh rối loạn miễn dịch… Đối với trẻ bị rubella bẩm sinh thì tiên lượng rất xấu do tổn thương không hồi phục. Việc phòng bệnh hiệu quả nhất là tiêm ngừa vắcxin (hiện đang thực hiện). Ở các nước phát triển nhờ chương trình tiêm chủng nên hiện nay không còn xảy ra dịch bệnh nữa. Miễn dịch trong tiêm phòng rubella bền vững suốt đời, chỉ cần tiêm một liều sau đó nếu tiếp xúc với rubella thì miễn dịch tăng lên.

Vì virút rubella quá nguy hiểm cho bào thai khi mẹ bị nhiễm bệnh trong 3 tháng đầu, điều không may là có người dù bị nhiễm nhưng không hề có triệu chứng nào nên cần khuyến cáo đi tiêm phòng rubella cho tất cả phụ nữ trong tuổi sinh sản hoặc dự tính mang thai đang sống trong vùng có dịch hoặc có tiếp xúc với nguồn lây bệnh.

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