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U XƠ TỬ CUNG : YẾU TỐ NGUY CƠ VÀ BIỂU HIỆN.  

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10:07 07/07/2017

U xơ tử cung là tình trạng xuất hiện khối u trong buồng tử cung nhưng với tính chất hoàn toàn lành tính.U xơ tử cung thường được phát hiện một cách tình cờ khi thăm khám .. [..]

U xơ tử cung là tình trạng xuất hiện khối u trong buồng tử cung nhưng với tính chất hoàn toàn lành tính.U xơ tử cung thường được phát hiện một cách tình cờ khi thăm khám sản phụ khoa.Kích thước khối u có thể từ vài mm đến hàng chục cm.Bệnh gặp phổ biến ở lứa tuổi 30-50.

Yếu tố nguy cơ

-Thừa cân,béo phì

-Di truyền: trong gia đình có mẹ hoặc chị,em gái bị u xơ tử cung thì nguy cơ bị u xơ tử cung tăng lên.

-Chủng tộc: phụ nữ da đen có nguy cơ bị u xơ tử cung cao hơn chủng tộc khác.

-Mang thai: do lượng hormon estrogen và progesteron tăng nhanh trong thời kỳ mang thai làm cho khối u xơ phát triển nhanh chóng.


Triệu chứng

- Khí hư nhiều do niêm mạc tử cung bị kích thích: dịch thường trong, đôi khi loãng như nước và ngày một nhiều hơn.

- Rối loạn kinh nguyệt.

- Thời gian hành kinh kéo dài hơn bình thường: trong mấy ngày đầu, lượng huyết ra nhiều hơn so với những kỳ kinh trước.

- Khi khối u xơ đã lớn, huyết không ra theo chu kỳ nữa mà có thể xuất hiện bất kỳ lúc nào, gọi là rong huyết.

- Tình trạng ra huyết kéo dài dẫn đến thiếu máu, khiến cơ thể xanh xao, mệt mỏi.

- Khi hành kinh, thường bị đau bụng do tử cung phải co bóp mạnh hơn để đẩy huyết kinh ra ngoài.

- Có trường hợp người bệnh tự sờ thấy khối nhân xơ cứng chắc ở vùng bụng dưới (thường là vào ban đêm khi nằm ngủ, các cơ thành bụng được thả lỏng).

Biến chứng

-Chèn ép vào bàng quang gây bí tiểu, chèn ép vào trực tràng gây táo bón.

-Trong quá trình quan hệ tình dục có thể gây đau và chảy nhiều máu.

-Băng kinh rất nguy hiểm đến tính mạng

-Nguy cơ sấy thai,thai chết lưu,sinh non ở phụ nữ đang mang thai.

Điều trị tùy thuộc vào kích thước của khối u, tuổi tác, mong muốn có con của người phụ nữ để đưa ra các chỉ định dùng phương pháp nội khoa hay dùng phương pháp phẫu thuật.

Phòng bệnh

-Khám phụ khoa định kỳ  6 tháng/lần.

-Hạn chế các chất béo có nguồn gốc động vật.

-Sử dụng các biện pháp tránh thai, hạn chế nạo hút thai.

Chú ý: U xơ tử cung là bệnh lý phụ khoa khá thường gặp. Bệnh lý thường lành tính và không để lại biến chứng nghiêm trọng tuy nhiên bệnh có thể gây ra những triệu chứng khó chịu. Vì vậy khi có bất kì dấu hiệu nào của ra máu hoặc đau bụng bất thường cần đi khám để phát hiện sớm bệnh và điều trị kịp thời.


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