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Bệnh còi xương dinh dưỡng  

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04:08 18/08/2013

Đây là bệnh do thiếu vitamin D – yếu tố cần thiết để có đủ Canxi ở xương.Căn bệnh này ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển và sức khoẻ trẻ em, thế nên cần có những hiểu biết về bệ.. [..]

Đây là bệnh do thiếu vitamin D – yếu tố cần thiết để có đủ Canxi ở xương.Căn bệnh này ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển và sức khoẻ trẻ em, thế nên cần có những hiểu biết về bệnh còi xương dinh dưỡng ở trẻ em để có những biện pháp kịp thời.

Nguyên nhân gây còi xương?

  • Thiếu ánh nắng mặt trời: do ở nhà chật, hẹp, mặc nhiều quần áo, không cho trẻ tiếp xúc với ánh nắng.
  • Chế độ ăn uống thiếu chất: trẻ không bú sữa mẹ hoặc ăn nhiều bột.
  • Các yếu tô thuận lợi:

+ Tuổi: hay gặp ở trẻ dưới 1 tuổi,

+ Trẻ đẻ non hoặc thiếu cân

+ Các bệnh nhiễm khuẩn: tiêu hóa, hô hấp.

+ Ở những trẻ bị rối loạn tiêu hóa kéo dài hoặc tắc mật bẩm sinh

+ Màu da: da màu thường gây cản trở tổng hợp vitamin D.

 

Các biểu hiện của bệnh còi xương dinh dưỡng:

Những dấu hiệu về thần kinh thường là dấu hiệu sớm:

  • Trẻ quấy khóc, ngủ không yên giấc, hay giật mình, do tình trạng thần  kinh bị kích thích
  • Ra mồ hôi ở trán, ở gáy ngay cả khi lạnh.
  • Do 2 tình trạng trên dẫn đến trẻ thường bị rụng tóc ở gáy (chiếu liếm).

Dấu hiệu ở xương:

  • Trẻ chậm mọc răng
  • Lồng ngực có biến dạng như ngực gà.
  • Các đầu xương bè ra, chân cong như vòng kiềng, cột sống có thể gù vẹo…..
  • Trẻ chậm biết ngồi, biết đi. Nặng có thể có cơn giật do hạ Canxi máu.

Điều trị:

Bệnh còi xương, cần cho trẻ tắm nắng buổi sáng và uống vitamin D, chứ không phải uống các chế phẩm có chứa canxi và ăn thêm xương. Những trẻ phải uống vitamin D hoặc có bệnh cấp tính kèm theo như tiêu chảy, viêm phổi... cần được các thầy thuốc chuyên khoa tư vấn và hướng dẫn. Việc điều trị chỉnh hình được đặt ra với những trẻ bị biến dạng xương nặng, khi bệnh đã khỏi.

Phòng bệnh:

Cách tốt nhất để phòng bệnh còi xương là trong thời gian mang thai và cho con bú, người mẹ được tắm nắng, có thời gian hoạt động ngoài trời và chế độ ăn uống đầy đủ. Vào các tháng cuối của thai kỳ, nên ăn các thức ăn giàu vitamin D và uống thêm dầu cá. Trẻ sinh ra cần được bú sữa mẹ đầy đủ. Sữa mẹ không chỉ có một hàm lượng vitamin D nhất định mà còn chứa những chất chuyển hóa của vitamin D.

TH

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin  mà các bạn có thể tham khảo, để biết  thêm chi tiết và được hướng dẫn cụ thể, hãy gọi đến tổng đài 1900.6180 hoặc 19008908 để  nhận được tư vấn trực tiếp từ các bác sĩ.


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