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Điều trị tiêu chảy cấp cho trẻ, thuốc gì?  

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08:02 07/02/2015

Điển hình của tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng là nôn ói, đau bụng, sốt bên cạnh triệu chứng tiêu chảy. Phân toàn nước, không tiêu hóa hết và có thể trong phân có máu tùy vào vi trù.. [..]

Điển hình của tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng là nôn ói, đau bụng, sốt bên cạnh triệu chứng tiêu chảy. Phân toàn nước, không tiêu hóa hết và có thể trong phân có máu tùy vào vi trùng gây bệnh.


Trong trường hợp bệnh nhân ăn phải độc tố hoặc vi trùng sinh độc tố thì ít khi có sốt, thường nôn ói nhiều kèm với tiêu chảy. Đau bụng trong tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng thường là đau quặn bụng, đau ở khắp bụng không khu trú ở vị trí nào. Tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng là loại bệnh tiêu chảy hay gặp nhất và xảy ra khắp nơi nhất là những nơi có điều kiện vệ sinh ăn uống kém. Các triệu chứng nêu trên thường xảy ra vài giờ sau khi ăn thực phẩm bị nhiễm khuẩn. Chẩn đoán bệnh tiêu chảy không khó nhưng xác định nguyên nhân thì khó. Trong tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng, điều quan trọng là phải xác định xem do vi trùng nào để có thể điều trị hiệu quả và phòng ngừa lây lan. Bệnh nhân được làm các xét nghiệm để xác định vi khuẩn gây ra. Người ta xét nghiệm tìm hồng cầu và bạch cầu trong phân gợi ý cho nhiễm Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli, Yersinia, amip. Tuy nhiên, việc cấy phân để tìm vi khuẩn gây bệnh là cơ bản nhất.

Trong điều trị tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng thì việc dùng kháng sinh không phải là quan trọng nhất. Quan trọng bậc nhất là điều trị tình trạng mất nước và điện giải, phần lớn tử vong trong bệnh này là do mất nước. Bù dịch cho bệnh nhân tùy tình trạng có thể là đường uống hoặc truyền tĩnh mạch (đặc biệt ở người già yếu hoặc trẻ nhỏ). Trong trường hợp tiêu chảy nhẹ thì không cần thiết dùng kháng sinh, nhưng đối với một số vi trùng thì phải cho kháng sinh đặc hiệu.

Việc dùng các thuốc cầm tiêu chảy nhóm thuốc phiện hoặc kháng cholin trong tiêu chảy nhiễm trùng không được khuyến khích. Cầm tiêu chảy có thể gây lưu giữ vi khuẩn và làm cho nó phát triển.

Theo báo Sức khỏe và đời sống.

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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