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Nhiễm trùng ở trẻ sơ sinh?  

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08:12 01/12/2014

Nhiễm trùng sơ sinh là nhiễm trùng mắc phải trước, trong khi sinh hoặc tháng đầu sau sinh. Nhiễm trùng có thể do virút, vi trùng. [..]

Nhiễm trùng sơ sinh là nhiễm trùng mắc phải trước, trong khi sinh hoặc tháng đầu sau sinh. Nhiễm trùng có thể do virút, vi trùng.


1.Trẻ có thể bị nhiễm trùng qua các đường sau đây:

  • Nhiễm trùng sơ sinh lây qua đường máu từ mẹ sang con là đường lây truyền xảy ra trước sinh, thường gặp các tác nhân như: giang mai bẩm sinh, HIV, Rubeola, Cytimegalo virus, Toxoplasmo.
  • Nhiễm trùng sơ sinh lây qua đường ối: do  nhiễm trùng tiết niệu sinh dục mẹ, mẹ bị hở cổ tử cung, vỡ ối sớm, thăm khám âm đạo nhiều.
  • Lây qua đường tiếp xúc khi sinh: lúc ngang qua tử cung, âm đạo, âm hộ khi chuyển dạ kéo dài.
  • Do môi trường: gây nhiễm trùng huyết sau sinh. Lây gián tiếp qua các vật dụng như: kim, ống chích, catheter, thông dạ dày, không rửa tay khi tiếp xúc bệnh nhân, môi trường nhiễm bẩn. Tăng nguy cơ khi nằm viện lâu, ngạt, hồi sức tại phòng sinh, non tháng, nhẹ cân.

2. Làm thế nào để biết trẻ bị nhiễm trùng?

Các dấu hiệu và triệu chứng dùng cho nhận biết nhiễm trùng sơ sinh rất đa dạng và dễ trùng lắp với những bệnh khác.

  • Trẻ có thể không khỏe: ít chơi, ít cử động hơn so bình thường.
  • Nặng hơn trẻ có thể bị sốt hay hạ thân nhiệt, vàng da, bú kém hay bỏ bú.
  • Trẻ có thể bị thở mệt (thở nhanh, ngực bụng co lõm bất thường), bụng trướng, tiêu chảy, tiêu ra đờm máu.
  • Trẻ có thể có biểu hiện của nhiễm trùng tại chỗ ở: da, rốn, mắt.

 

3.Vậy khi nào mang trẻ khám bệnh?

Đưa trẻ đến bệnh viện ngay không chậm trễ khi:

- Khó thở.

- Co giật.

- Sốt hoặc cảm thấy lạnh.

- Chảy máu.

- Tiêu chảy.

- Quá nhẹ cân, vừa mới đẻ.

- Hoàn toàn không bú được.

Đưa trẻ đến cơ sở y tế càng nhanh càng tốt nếu trẻ:

- Bú khó.

- Mủ mắt.

- Mụn mủ da.

- Vàng da.

- Rốn đỏ hoặc chảy mủ.

- Bú dưới 5 lần trong 24 giờ.

4.Làm thế nào phòng ngừa nhiễm trùng sơ sinh?

Các biện pháp thực hiện trước khi sinh:

- Bà mẹ được khám thai, chủng ngừa đầy đủ. Điều trị tốt các bệnh lý và nhiễm trùng tiết niệu sinh dục cho bà mẹ.

- Cung cấp đủ vi chất dinh dưỡng cho bà mẹ, phòng suy dinh dưỡng cho bà mẹ.

- Chăm sóc vệ sinh cho bà mẹ mang thai tốt.

- Xử trí tốt những trường hợp ối vỡ sớm, ối vỡ non. Tránh để chuyển dạ kéo dài.

Các biện pháp thực hiện khi sinh:

- Bảo đảm sinh sạch. Tránh nhiễm trùng lây qua các dụng cụ, bàn tay người chăm sóc, cũng như những nhiễm trùng ở mẹ phải được điều tốt khi sinh.

- Tránh các biến chứng sản khoa: sinh ngạt, sang chấn sản khoa cho mẹ và con.

Các biện pháp thực hiện sau khi sinh:

- Rửa tay trước và sau khi chăm sóc trẻ  sơ sinh.  Đây là biện pháp rất quan trọng và hiệu quả trong phòng ngừa nhiễm trùng sơ sinh

- Chăm sóc vệ sinh da, rốn, mắt.

- Phòng ốc cho trẻ sơ sinh cần thoáng, ấm, sạch và có ánh sáng đủ.

- Cho trẻ bú sữa mẹ.

Nguồn: SKĐS

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin  mà các bạn có thể tham khảo, để biết thêm chi tiết và được hướng dẫn cụ thể, hãy gọi đến tổng đài 1900.6180 để  nhận được tư vấn trực tiếp từ các bác sĩ.


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