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Nôn trớ ở trẻ nhỏ - nguyên nhân và cách xử lý  

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10:05 08/05/2017

Nôn trớ là triệu chứng hay gặp ở trẻ nhỏ. Nôn trớ là hiện tượng thức ăn trong dạ dày bị đẩy lên thực quản rồi trào ra miệng. Nôn có liên quan đến sự gắng sức của cơ thành.. [..]

Các tin liên quan

    A PHP Error was encountered

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  • Viêm tai giữa ở trẻ  09:04 25/04/2018
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  • Phòng tránh bệnh cho trẻ nhỏ khi trời nồm ẩm  10:04 03/04/2017
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  • Viêm phế quản phổi ở trẻ em  09:01 09/01/2016
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  • Giải mã những dấu hiệu “lạ” ở trẻ sơ sinh?  07:07 07/07/2015
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  • Nhận diện những hành khác thường ở trẻ  08:05 31/05/2015

Nôn trớ là triệu chứng hay gặp ở trẻ nhỏ. Nôn trớ là hiện tượng thức ăn trong dạ dày bị đẩy lên thực quản rồi trào ra miệng. Nôn có liên quan đến sự gắng sức của cơ thành bụng, khác với trớ. Nôn trớ có thể lành tính, tự khỏi khi trẻ lớn hơn, có thể là biểu hiện của bệnh lý.

1. Nôn trớ sinh lý:

Nguyên nhân: Sau khi sinh do dạ dày trẻ còn nhỏ, nằm ngang nên trẻ rất dễ nôn trớ và hiện tượng này sẽ hết khi trẻ lớn hơn. Nôn trớ đơn thuần thường liên quan đến ăn uống. Hay gặp ở trẻ nhỏ do ép trẻ ăn quá nhiều, bú quá no, nằm liền sau khi bú, hoặc không dung nạp thức ăn  hoặc bắt đầu ăn bổ sung với thức ăn mới lạ, hoặc ăn nhiều quá 1 loại thức ăn nào đó.

Dấu hiệu: Nôn thường xuất hiện sớm, số lượng chất nôn ít, chủ yếu là thức ăn. Trẻ vẫn chơi bình thường, không ảnh hưởng đến toàn trạng cơ thể. Do vậy, chỉ cần điều chỉnh cách cho ăn.

Cách khắc phục:

  • Không ép trẻ ăn nhiều làm cho trẻ ngại khi nhìn thấy thức ăn.
  • Khi cho 1 loại thức ăn mới nên cho từ ít đến nhiều, từ lỏng đến đặc, chia  làm nhiều bữa nhỏ trong ngày .
  • Ở những trẻ bú mẹ thì sau khi bú xong nên bế trẻ 10-15 phút rồi mới đặt trẻ nằm.
  • Khi cho trẻ bú bình lưu ý sao cho sữa ngập núm vú bình để tránh nuốt không khí vào dạ dày.

2. Nôn trớ bệnh lý

Nguyên nhân:

Bệnh lý tại đường tiêu hóa như: trào ngược dạ dày thực quản, nhiễm khuẩn đường ruột, ngộ độc thức ăn, bệnh lý ngoại khoa như: lồng ruột, tắc ruột, hẹp môn vị…

Bệnh lý toàn thân như: viêm đường hô hấp, viêm màng não…

Triệu chứng:

Nôn kèm với các biểu hiện đặc trưng trong từng bệnh lý như sốt, ho, co giật, phát ban, đau bụng, bụng trướng….

Xử trí: Cần đưa trẻ đến khám ở cơ sở y tế để xử trí kịp thời.

3. Biện pháp xử lý khi trẻ nôn trớ

  • Lau sạch miệng cho trẻ, thay áo và quàng khăn vào cổ trẻ đề phòng bé nôn trớ tiếp.
  • Nên để bé nằm nghiêng hoặc đỡ bé ngồi dậy , đề phòng khi bé nôn, chất nôn sẽ tràn vào phổi và gây sặc.
  • Khi nôn nhiều và mất nước cần bổ sung lượng nước đã mất bằng dung dịch Oresol, nước đun sôi để nguội hay nước trái cây.
  • Nếu bé tiếp tục nôn nhiều hoặc có dấu hiệu của bệnh lý nên đưa trẻ đi khám.


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  • Viêm tai giữa ở trẻ  09:04 25/04/2018
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  • Dị tật sứt môi hở hàm ếch  03:04 24/04/2018
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  • Tiêm phòng vaccine dại cho trẻ nên hay không  04:04 23/04/2018
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