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Răng sơ sinh  

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12:05 13/05/2011

Bình thường trẻ mới sinh ra chưa có răng, chiếc răng đầu tiên thường mọc vào lúc trẻ khoảng 6 tháng tuổi. Tuy nhiên, đôi khi có trường hợp trẻ mới sinh ra đã có răng nên .. [..]

Nguyên nhân

Nguyên nhân của hiện tượng này thì còn chưa rõ. Một vài nghiên cứu chỉ ra có liên quan đến di truyền, khoảng 15% trẻ có cha mẹ hoặc bà con có răng sơ sinh. Yếu tố môi trường, đặc biệt polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) làm tăng tỷ lệ xuất hiện răng sơ sinh, những trẻ này thường kèm loạn dưỡng móng tay, tăng nhiễm sắc tố. Một số nghiên cứu thấy hiện tượng này có thể gặp ở trẻ bị sứt môi, hở vòm và một số hội chứng khác như: Hallermann Streiff, Ellis-van Creveld, Pierre Robin, Soto.

Răng sơ sinh có thể là răng thừa hoặc răng sữa. Các răng này hơn 90% đa số là răng sữa và khoảng 10% còn lại là răng thừa. Tỷ lệ gặp thay đổi từ 1/700 - 1/30.000 trường hợp, thường gặp ở vùng răng cửa hàm dưới. Răng mới sinh thường gặp hơn răng sơ sinh với tỉ lệ 3/1.

Răng sơ sinh thường có hình thể bình thường, nhưng khi răng mọc sớm, do men răng chưa được vôi hóa hoàn toàn nên dễ bị mòn hơn, răng trở nên màu vàng nâu và lớp men tiếp tục bị phá hủy.

Những răng này thường bị lung lay, do chân răng chưa hình thành hoàn toàn. Những trẻ có răng sơ sinh thường gặp khó khăn khi bú mẹ hay gây khó chịu cho mẹ khi cho trẻ bú, răng có thể gây loét niêm mạc vùng dưới lưỡi hoặc môi.

Xử trí răng sơ sinh

Đối với răng sơ sinh cần xử trí cẩn thận, vì nếu răng sơ sinh là răng sữa mà nhổ sớm thì các răng vĩnh viễn sau này mọc lên có thể chen chúc, không đều nhau và hậu quả là đưa đến sự xáo trộn khớp cắn. Do đó, nếu răng sơ sinh là răng sữa thì cố gắng bảo tồn giữ răng sữa lại. Chúng ta không nên can thiệp gì, trừ khi răng sơ sinh này gây khó khăn cho trẻ và mẹ.

Tuy nhiên, việc đảm bảo an toàn cho trẻ quan trọng hơn việc chỉnh các răng vĩnh viễn lệch lạc sau này, nên các răng này thường được chỉ định nhổ trong các trường hợp răng quá lung lay, có nguy cơ rơi vào phế quản hoặc phổi, răng gây loét vùng dưới lưỡi hay răng gây khó khăn cho người mẹ khi cho trẻ bú.

Do vậy, những trẻ này cần được bác sĩ răng hàm mặt chuyên khoa Răng trẻ em khám và chẩn đoán, để có thái độ xử trí thích hợp.


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