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08:01 30/01/2015

Sốt là một triệu chứng y khoa thường gặp, đặc trưng bởi sự gia tăng nhiệt độ cơ thể cao hơn mức giới hạn bình thường. Sốt khi nhiệt độ đo ở hậu môn trên 38oC. Sốt thường .. [..]

Sốt là một triệu chứng y khoa thường gặp, đặc trưng bởi sự gia tăng nhiệt độ cơ thể cao hơn mức giới hạn bình thường. Sốt khi nhiệt độ đo ở hậu môn trên 38 độ C. Sốt thường là đáp ứng của cơ thể với tình trạng nhiễm trùng (kéo dài hơn 2 đến 3 ngày). Ngoài ra, sốt còn có thể do những bệnh không nhiễm trùng, sốt do thuốc, sau chích ngừa. Sốt là phản ứng có lợi cho cơ thể, tuy nhiên sốt cao trên 41oC có nguy cơ co giật và tổn thương não.


Có nhiều nguyên nhân gây ra sốt, được chia thành hai nhóm nhiễm trùng và không nhiễm trùng

1. Nhóm nguyên nhân do nhiễm trùng:

- Nhiễm vi trùng: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus...

- Nhiễm siêu vi: sởi, quai bị, thủy đậu, sốt xuất huyết, các loại siêu vi hô hấp...

- Nhiễm kí sinh trùng: sốt rét, kí sinh trùng đường ruột...

- Nhiễm nấm: Candida albican, Clamydia...

2. Nhóm nguyên nhân không do nhiễm trùng:

- Bệnh tự miễn: Lupus, Sarcoidosis, Kawasaki...

- Sự hủy mô: tán huyết, phẫu thuật, nhồi máu, xuất huyết não...

- Phản ứng do sự bất tương hợp trong truyền chế phẩm máu

- Ung thư: ung thư thận, bạch cầu cấp, lymphoma...

- Bệnh lý chuyển hóa

- Thuyên tắc mạch như thuyên tắc phổi, thuyên tắc tĩnh mạch sâu...

Chẩn đoán sốt thường dễ dàng nhờ đo nhiệt độ, tuy nhiên vấn đề quan trọng là cần phải tìm nguyên nhân gây ra sốt để có kế hoạch điều trị cho trẻ. Khi trẻ có sốt, tốt nhất phụ huynh nên đưa trẻ đến cơ sở y tế để được khám toàn diện, chẩn đoán và điều trị kịp thời.

Một số vấn đề phụ huynh cần biết trong điều trị ban đầu:

- Cho trẻ uống nhiều nước, nằm chỗ thoáng.

- Tiếp tục ăn uống bình thường.

- Không dùng hạ nhiệt thường quy ở trẻ sốt nhẹ vẫn sinh hoạt bình thường vì sốt là phản ứng có lợi làm kìm hãm sự phát triển của siêu vi và vi khuẩn. Thuốc hạ sốt được dùng khi trẻ sốt cao trên 39oC hoặc dùng sớm hơn khi thân nhiệt trên 38oC trong trường hợp trẻ có bệnh lý tim mạch, có dấu hiệu hiệu dọa co giật, có tiền căn sốt cao co giật hoặc sốt làm trẻ khó chịu.

- Paracetamol là thuốc hạ nhiệt được chọn vì hiệu quả và an toàn cho trẻ em. Liều dùng 10-15 mg/kg uống hay nhét hậu môn mỗi 4-6 giờ.

- Lau mát hạ sốt với nước ấm hoặc nước thường, không lau bằng cồn hay giấm và chấm dứt lau mát khi thân nhiệt dưới 38,5oC. Chỉ định lau mát hạ sốt:

+ Sốt cao kèm đang co giật

+ Sau thuốc hạ nhiệt 30 phút trẻ vẫn còn sốt cao ≥ 40oC kèm kích thích, dọa co giật.

Theo Bệnh viện nhi đồng 2

Chú ý: Trên đây là những thông tin mà bạn có thể tham khảo, nếu bạn có bất kỳ thắc mắc nào về tâm lý và sức khoẻ, hãy gọi điện đến tổng đài tư vấn 1900.6180 để nhận được sự tư vấn trực tiếp và cụ thể từ các chuyên gia.


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