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08:09 18/09/2013

Sau phẫu thuật ghép thận, bệnh nhân rất dễ gặp các biến chứng nguy hiểm. Vì vậy, để phục hồi và duy trì sức khỏe, người sau ghép thận cần thận trọng trong ăn uống, sinh h.. [..]

Sau phẫu thuật ghép thận, bệnh nhân rất dễ gặp các biến chứng nguy hiểm. Vì vậy, để phục hồi và duy trì sức khỏe, người sau ghép thận cần thận trọng trong ăn uống, sinh hoạt và tuân thủ chặt chẽ những quy định sau:

Ăn uống

Ăn đồ ăn đã nấu chín, không ăn đồ sống, đồ biển, nước chưa đun sôi, sữa tươi, rau quả đã dập nát. Kiêng rượu và các đồ uống có cồn khác. Thực hiện chế độ ăn điều độ, ít muối, chất béo và đường. Mỗi ngày, bệnh nhân cần khoảng 25kcal/kg trọng lượng, cụ thể là: đạm (0,55-1g/kg); muối (2-3g); vitamin C giúp tránh lắng đọng oxalat ở thận ghép (hơn 100mg).

Sinh hoạt cá nhân

Theo dõi tình trạng sức khỏe chung và thận ghép bao gồm theo dõi nước tiểu trong 24 giờ và tình trạng các bệnh kèm theo (tăng huyết áp, tiểu đường, bướu cổ, viêm gan…). Bệnh nhân tăng huyết áp phải có sổ tự theo dõi huyết áp; Thường xuyên luyện tập sức khỏe để đề phòng rối loạn dị hóa đạm, yếu cơ, tăng mỡ trong máu, béo phì, loãng xương…; Giữ vệ sinh cá nhân sạch sẽ. Khi ra ngoài trời phải mang khẩu trang, đội nón. Dùng kem chống nắng khi đi biển hoặc phải ở ngoài trời nhiều giờ liên tục. Tránh để mắc cảm cúm, không tiếp xúc gần những người bị các bệnh truyền nhiễm, các loại gia súc, gia cầm; Môi trường sống cần sạch sẽ, thoáng mát. Cần dọn sạch các hố nước, không nuôi chim, súc vật nếu không kiểm soát được lây nhiễm. Với môi trường bên ngoài, cần tránh khu vực ô uế, tránh nơi đông người (nhất là trong mùa có dịch bệnh hô hấp)

Dùng thuốc

Bệnh nhân phải dùng thuốc ức chế miễn dịch suốt đời. Do loại thuốc này có độc tính cao nên việc sử dụng nhất thiết phải theo hướng dẫn của bác sĩ. Cần dùng thuốc đúng giờ (nên có một đồng hồ báo giờ), theo dõi các biến chứng, tác dụng phụ của thuốc. Việc uống các thuốc khác cũng phải theo y lệnh để tránh các tương tác có hại.

Những điều tối kỵ

Sau phẫu thuật, bệnh nhân ghép thận tuyệt đối không được tự ý ngừng thuốc vì tác dụng phụ hay vì cảm thấy đã khỏe mạnh. Không được tự ý thay đổi liều lượng và thời gian uống thuốc.

BS. Phan Hà Lê

Theo suckhoedoisong.vn

Trên đây là những thông tin  mà các bạn có thể tham khảo, để biết  thêm chi tiết và được hứơng dẫn cụ thể, hãy gọi đến tổng đài 1900.6180 hoặc 19008908 để  nhận được tư vấn trực tiếp từ các bác sĩ.


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